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Slow Down Your Brain to Get More Done, with Steven Kotler

Flow is technically defined as an optimal
state of consciousness. A state of consciousness where we feel our best and we perform our
best. It refers to those moments of total absorption when we get so focused on the task
at hand that everything else disappears. So our sense of self, our sense of self-consciousness,
they vanish. Time dilates which means sometimes it slows down. You get that freeze frame effect
familiar to any of you who have seen the matrix or been in a car crash. Sometimes it speeds
up and five hours will pass by in like five minutes. And throughout all aspects of performance,
mental and physical, go through the roof. Underneath the flow state is a complicated
mass of neurobiology. There are fundamental changes in neuroanatomy – which is where
in the brain something’s taking place, neurochemistry and neuroelectricity which is the two ways
the brain communicates with itself. The most prominent of this is the neuroanatomical changes. So the old idea about ultimate performance
flow is what’s known as the ten percent brain myth. The idea that we’re only using
ten percent of our brain at any one time so ultimate performance must obviously be the
full brain firing on all cylinders. And it turns out we had it exactly backwards. In
flow, parts of the brain aren’t becoming more hyperactive, they’re actually slowing
down, shutting down. The technical term for this is transient, meaning temporary, hypo
frontality. Hypo – H – Y – P – O – it’s the opposite of hyper means to slow down,
to shut down, to deactivate. And frontality is the prefrontal cortex, the part of your
brain that houses your higher cognitive functions, your sense of morality, your sense of will,
your sense of self. All that shuts down so, for example, why does time pass so strangely
in flow? Because David Eagleman discovered that time is calculated all over the prefrontal
cortex. When parts of it start to wink out we can no longer separate past from present
from future and we’re plunged into what researchers call the deep now. Transient hypofrontality is interesting. It
was discovered back in the nineties and it had very negative connotations; it was found
in schizophrenics and drug addicts. And then in the early two thousands Aaron Dietrich
who was then at Georgia Tech discovered or hypothesized that transient hypofrontality
actually underpins every altered state – dreaming, meditation, flow, drug addiction – it doesn’t
really matter. And then in 2007, 2008 Charles Limb at Johns Hopkins working with first jazz
musicians and second with rappers was looking at flow in those contexts and found that the
prefrontal cortex was shutting down as well. Though depending on the altered state you
get different parts are shut down. Like in flow, one of the most prominent examples is
the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. It shuts down. This is the part of the brain that houses
your inner critic, that nagging defeatist always on voice in your head turns off in
flow. And as a result we feel this is liberation right. We are finally getting out of our own
way. We’re free of ourselves. Creativity goes up. Risk taking goes up and we feel amazing. My mission for the past 15 years has been
sort of to reclaim flow research from the hippie community, from the new age community
and put it back on a really hard science footing. And really what that took was flow research
has been going on continuously at kind of both here and in the United State and Europe
all over. And it really just took synthesizing all the information and bringing it together
and putting it on a hard and neurobiological footing. That said there’s a bunch left
to do, right. We have 150 years of flow psychology and flow science goes back all the way to
the 1870s. In fact some of the earliest experiments ever run in kind of early neuroscience and
early kind of experimental psychology were run on flow. In the past 25 years as our brain
imaging technology has gotten better and better and better we can look farther into the brain
and see what’s going on. We’ve got about 25 year of neurobiology that’s underpinning
and I sort of think it starts with Dr. Andrew Newberg at the University of Pennsylvania
who was looking – he was actually looking at spiritual experiences in meditating Tibetan
Buddhists and Franciscan nuns. And he found that “state of cosmic unity”
when we become one with everything is actually a byproduct of transient hypofrontality as
well. It’s what happens when the hypofrontality moves out of the prefrontal cortex and back
into the right parietal lobe which is the part of the brain that separates self from
other, right. It allows us to walk through crowded rooms without bumping into people
and things along those lines. In flow this portion of the brain shuts down so we can
no longer separate self from others. So when people talk about feeling one with everything
you’ll get it in action sports – surfers will talk about being one with the waves,
mountain climbers one with the mountain, whatever it is. For Buddhists it’s cosmic unity,
it’s one with the universe. But what’s really happening is the portion of the brain
that separates self from other is shut down so we can no longer distinguish between the
two things. And as a result we feel one with everything.

About Bill McCormick

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